A Reforma e a Educação: Em Busca de Bibliografia

Estou procurando bibliografia sobre o tema que dá título a este artigo.

Por enquanto, tenho três livros sobre o assunto: um em minhas mãos, desde 1999 (2 de Fevereiro), comprado na Amazon US, e outros dois comprados recentemente (2 de Junho, 2017) na Amazon US, que ainda não chegaram, e pelos quais espero ansiosamente.

Este é o livro que comprei em 1999:

Pedagogy, Printing and Protestantism: The Discourse on Childhood, de Carmen Luke (State University of New York Press, Albany, 1989), 172 páginas

Os dois que comprei recentemente são (pela ordem de importância, com base na análise que deles faz Carmen Luke, no livro anterior, e, além, disso, estou mais interessado em Lutero do que em Calvino no momento [ainda faltam 19 anos para os 500 anos do início da Reforma em Genebra):

Luther’s House of Learning: Indoctrination of the Young in the German Reformation, de Gerald Strauss (Johns Hopkins University Press, 15th ed. 1978), 405 páginas (edição esgotadíssima – paguei 93 dólares por uma cópia usada)

Early Protestant Educators: The Educational Writings Of Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Other Leaders of Protestant Thought (no data about edition), de Frederick Eby (, 334 páginas (também edição esgotada, mas mais barato)

O site da Amazon não contém resenhas sobre o primeiro e o terceiro livro. Mas contém duas sobre o segundo, que transcrevo a ser (no original em Inglês):

By Andrea Boykowycz, on March 20, 2002

This is quite simply the best history of literacy and education in early modern Germany that’s available in English; but more than that, it’s an excellent social and intellectual history of the Reformation. Why on earth is it out of print?

Strauss looks at the goals and the results of the educational campaigns of the early Lutherans, and ultimately finds that until local and regional government took an active role in the administration and funding of the schools the Lutherans established, their effectiveness (measured by the results of inspection committee examinations) was slight. Over the course of several decades, the Lutheran educators learned much more than the students they were attempting to recruit: educational goals evolved, in competition with secular/commercial schools, to reflect the economic interests of rural communities in addition to Lutheran religious goals, and the expectations of the educators also adapted to economic and social constraints.

Strauss writes clearly and engagingly, and his research is prodigious. This is a goldmine of information on a wide range of topics — the Reformation, early modern Germany, educational programs, conflicting interests between secular and clerical educational goals and methods… Find a copy, if you can, and sink your teeth into this book.

By Brian Griffith (author of Correcting Jesus) on February 23, 2008

Strauss ponders the paradoxes of Luther’s Reformation heritage and its educational impact. One the one hand, assertive teachers proclaimed the individual’s freedom of conscience. On the other, the same people upheld Christian faith as a willing submission to external authority. As Strauss describes the goals of Lutheran educators in post-Reformation Germany,

“… their model Christian was an essentially passive being prepared to acquiesce rather than struggle, distrustful of his own inclinations and reluctant to act on them … hesitant to proceed when no one guided him, certain only of his own weakness as a creature and of the mortal peril of his condition as a sinner.” (p. 136)

In such teaching through the centuries Protestantism seemed to wobble between insisting that we are incapable of guiding ourselves, and declaring that we alone are responsible for the state of our souls. As a growing series of movements for democracy shook Europe, many people still assumed that absolute monarchies or military dictatorships were Christian, while rule by consent of the rabble was against God’s will. And down to recent times many Protestants continued stressing Bible verses in which God seems to favor submissive sheep over free adults. The unfolding Protestant Reformation, Strauss shows, has proved capable of leading people in either direction.

Escrevo este artigo preliminar para pedir ajuda: quem tiver mais indicações bibliográficas sobre o tema, por favor, envie-me para o e-mail chaves@reformation.space. Não precisa ser um livro inteiro sobre o assunto, como no caso das três referências dadas atrás. Pode ser um artigo em um livro sobre outro assunto, ou uma mera referência em um livro de História da Igreja ou História da Educação.

Prometo que, quando o artigo sobre o assunto estiver pronto, eu o compartilharei, como sempre faço… 🙂

Em Salto, 6 de Junho de 2017


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